Thursday, 11 September 2014

Next larger context



'Always design a thing by considering it in its next larger context -- a chair in a room, a room in a house, a house in an environment, an environment in a city plan.' - Eliel Saarinen

Rewilding


Tune into Shoreditch Radio this Sunday at 8 for my debut hosting the 21st Century Permaculture radio show: a conversation with writer, walker and activist Adam Weymouth about rewilding.

Adam has been walking in Scotland having conversations with various folk about the proposed reintroduction of wolves and we talk about the human ecology behind the feral dream.

You can read Adam's work at his website and follow him on twitter @adamweymouth

During our conversation we mention:

Feral: Searching for enchantment on the frontiers of rewilding (2013) by George Monbiot

Of Wolves and Men (1979) by Barry Lopez

The video How Wolves Change Rivers about the Yellowstone Wolves

The Centre for Human Ecology

If you happen to miss the broadcast, you can listen afterwards at your leisure by going to www.mixcloud.com/21stcenturypermaculture

I'm standing in for regular host Stef this week, in my next show I'll be speaking to geographer Dr Gerry Taylor Aiken.

Wednesday, 6 August 2014

My Guilty Travel Secret

 
‘carbon guilt’ illustration by Stephen Collins
I have a guilty secret. I recently wrote about one my travel decisions: the decision not to fly. As I explained then, my decision to no longer use air transport was made because I found the environmental impact of aeroplane use to be too high. When I shared that post with friends on Facebook it drew some support, some admiration, some critique and a need in many to justify their own use of aeroplanes. I didn't seek to criticise others, as Bill Mollison wrote 'The only ethical decision is to take responsibility for our own existence and that of our children. Make it now.' I take that seriously - I am responsible for my existence, you are responsible for your existence.

I have a guilty travel secret. I use trains. I use trains a lot. In the last couple of years my partner and I have holidayed in France taking National Rail, London Underground, Eurostar, TGV and TER  trains from our home to the Ardeche (in 2013) and to the Cote d'Azur (in 2014). But this is is not my guilty secret.

Those holiday journeys pale in significance when placed in the context of my regular weekly train use. My name is James and I am a commuter, it's been 3 hours and 45 minutes since my last train journey. A searching and fearless inventory of my usage requires a thorough survey.

I live in a small town in Essex and I work in central London. Everyday Monday to Friday I walk to my local branch line station and board a train into the metropolis.

 

If it's what we do each day that defines us - this is what currently determines me. And it's an activity that adds up. I leave our home at about 8.20, board a train at 8.37, arrive at Stratford about 9.16, transfer to to the London Underground and take the Central Line to Tottenham Court Road station from which I make a 5 minute walk to my workplace.



I leave work at 18.00, walk back to Tottenham Court Road station, take the Central line to London Liverpool Street where I board the 18:41 train home, I get to South Woodham Ferrers around 19.25 and walk back to the house to get in by 19.40.

What's the impact of all this travel? How might I analyse my survey data?


Daily CommuteDistance (Km)Carbon Emissions (KgCO²e)Carbon Conversion Factor (KgCO²e per passenger/Km)
Outward Journey (train)48.28032.3676659120.04904
Outward Journey (tube)10.530.66981330.06361
Return Journey (train)54.71772.6833560080.04904
Return Journey (tube)3.790.24108190.06361
TOTAL117.3185.96191712

Every workday I travel 117km by powered transport, leading to the equivalent of 5.96 kgCO² emissions. I work 224 days a year at this job, meaning my annual commute involves traveling 26,279.23km with concomitant emissions of 1,335.47 KgCO²e. [see below for data sources].


It's not the only rail travel I make.

As a trustee of the Permaculture Association I make two round trips to Leeds by train a year (totaling 1,178.04 km) and four additional round trips into central London - so my total rail travel as a trustee  is about 1,647 km.

Early this year I taught on a Permaculture Design Course (PDC) in London for 12 days across 6 weekends. Each day required additional travel from home into London, with rail travel of about  1,369km.

My previously mentioned holiday in France earlier this year involved rail travel totaling about 3,022km.

I know that I make more rail travel than this in an average year. At the weekends I will frequently make short local journeys by train, less frequently I will travel into London and back and make several tube journeys. Some workday evenings will involve additional tube travel. Across the year I am also likely to make some weekend travel across the UK to attend events or visit friends. I have found these journeys hard to enumerate but have estimated that in any given year these will involve travel of another 4,000 km.

Adding all these pieces of rail travel together, I get the following results:

Type of TravelDistance (km)Carbon Emissions (KgCO²e)Carbon Emissions (tCO²e)
Annual Commute26,279.231,335.471.335469435
Trustee Travel1,647.3181.620.08161875008
Holiday in France3,022.4426.840.02683848202
Travel for PDC1,358.7067.290.06729352699
Other Rail Travel4,000.00225.300.2253








TOTAL36,307.681,736.521.736520194

My annual travel, just by rail, results in equivalent CO² emissions of 1.73 metric tonnes - with my commute alone creating 1.33 metric tonnes of those.

Rush 'hour' on the Central Line, standing room only & currently 34.8°C, 45% RH
Being a commuter is both poor energy efficient planning and poor use of relative location. Two major elements of my life (my home and my workplace) are situated at a great distance from each other making it difficult to establish beneficial relations between the two. A large amount of energy* is required to transport me 117km five days a week leading to the production of waste in the form of atmospheric emissions and poor Earth Care. The daily grind and being away from home 12 hours a day isn't too great for People Care either, the journey is tiring and frequently frustrating with delays beyond my control extending my working day - I've also less time with my partner, family and friends and less time for housework, exercise and creative activity. According to the Office of National Statistics, commuting makes you 'unhappy and anxious'. There are also large financial impacts resulting from commuting, my annual season ticket currently costs £4,764 and will rise by inflation (RPI) on 1st January 2015** while my salary rises at just 1% a year (if I'm lucky!). My commute currently costs about 25% of my take-home pay. The profits made from me by Greater Anglia will largely leave the country to go to parent company Abellio (Nederlandse Spoorwegen) in the Netherlands.

But most significantly, according to United Nations projections, by 2050 the annual carbon emissions of every person on Earth must not exceed 2 metric tonnes, if we are to keep global temperatures in the 'safe zone' below 2 degrees above the pre-Industrial Revolution average and maintain Fair Shares of the atmospheric commons. As my annual rail travel alone is close to that figure, and my commute alone is over half of it - the way I travel is clearly not sustainable - this is my guilty secret.

Tune in next time, as I move on to design decisions!



*(All of the trains I have used are electric, offering the future opportunity for them to be powered entirely by renewable resources - but currently they reflect the UK and France energy mix and also use a range of non-renewable (coal, gas, nuclear) fuels. A change to an entirely renewably resourced service is inevitable eventually, but the national infrastructure requirements will be large, carbon intensive in construction and that eventual service may look very different to today in both scale and type.)

** Exact figure to be announced on 18th August, given that RPI was 2.6% in June, fares are expected to go up by over double my likely 2015 cost-of-living rise taking my annual fare to £4887.86 - spitting distance of £5 grand, a figure it will inevitably top the following year..



Data Sources






Wednesday, 16 July 2014

Be Prepared


'When we design, we are always building for future floods, future fires, future droughts, and planting a tree a few inches tall that will be future forest giants, throw future shadows. Future populations will need future soils and forest resources, shelter, security. So somebody needs to range ahead in time, scout out the next century. We are not daydreaming. We are time scouts. Finding places now for what will be needed then.'

- Bill Mollison, Travels in Dreams

'Although the craftsperson’s saying about “using the correct tool for the job” has merit, the boy scout motto about “being prepared” is more important in a jack-of-all-trades permaculture lifestyle, where one is dealing with changing opportunities, resources and impediments.'

- David Holmgren, Permaculture Pocket Knives (April 2012)

This year the affinities between permaculture and scouting will appear a little clearer, with the UK national convergence of permaculturalists being held at Gilwell Park, the historic home of scouting in the UK, located on the London-Essex border. In 2015 permaculturalists will gather there again for the International Permaculture Convergence, when the UK will host the world

Look up the word scout in the dictionary and you’ll find it referring to persons who are sent out ahead of the majority to gather intelligence and bring it back to inform action. Follow the etymology back and you are led to the Old French escouter 'to listen, heed', from the Latin auscultare 'to listen to, give heed to' – so a scout might be someone who gathers information by paying attention, by taking notice, by observation. As we pilot a course though the uncertain waters of the future we need to pay attention to our changing environments and like good boy scouts we need to be prepared. 

I was a third-generation scout. My paternal grandfather was in the scouts in Newcastle and, as a boy of 13 attended the 3rd World Scout Jamboree held in 1929 at Arrowe Park in Upton, Merseyside - the scouting movement's international convergence. It must have been, I imagine, the furthest he'd been from home in his life thus far. The event was attended by 50,000 Scouts and apparently had an additional 300,000 visitors. Those scouts came from across the international scouting movement, the camp was organized in eight subcamps, around a specially built town in the middle, called Midway. My grandad was camped alongside a group of Japanese scouts.

Japanese scouts showing Swedish and Scottish scouts how to make mats at Gilwell Park, where the troops are in camp on their way to Arrowe Park, Birkenhead (photo taken 22nd July 1929)
The event closed with an event celebrating and promoting international peace. A hatchet was ceremonially buried and the Chief Scout Baden-Powell addressed the gathered Scouts:

'Here is the hatchet of war, of enmity, of bad feeling, which I now bury in Arrowe. From all corners of the world you came to the call of brotherhood and to Arrowe. Now I send you forth to your homelands bearing the sign of peace, good-will and fellowship to all your fellow men. From now on in Scouting the symbol of peace and goodwill is a golden arrow. Carry that arrow on and on, so that all may know of the brotherhood of men.

 I want you all to go back from here to your countries in different parts of the world with a new idea in your minds of having brothers in every country... Go forth from here as ambassadors of goodwill and friendship. Every one of you Scouts, no matter how young or small, can spread a good word about this country and those whom you have met here. Try to make yourselves better Scouts than ever; try to help other boys, especially the poorer boys, to be happy, healthy, and helpful citizens like yourselves. And now, farewell, goodbye, God Bless you all.'

It was a powerful message, but peace and goodwill were very soon overcome in the world. Criticism of Baden-Powell and the scouting movement has often identified in both the same attitudes of militarism and imperialism that would, in the wider world, catalyse global conflict. Eleven years after the World Scout Jamboree my grandad was fighting in the jungles of Malaya, and the next time he found himself in the company of Japanese men he was their prisoner in less friendly camps along the route of the Death Railway between Bangkok and Rangoon.

My grandad's Japanese POW record, in a collection held in the UK National Archives
He was fortunate, he survived and was liberated - suffering with dysentry, malnutrition, malaria and a parasitic worm in his blood (that wouldn't be diagnosed until years after) but alive. I wouldn't be here if he hadn't. Back in 1929 I don't expect that he was expecting his future to turn out the way it did, and I don't know if he was any better prepared for it than his fellows. In his own way though, he must have creatively adapted and responded to change, he had a clear goal - survival - and, no doubt with some luck, he successfully found his way of achieving it.

When I was a cub scout and a scout, I didn't really feel any militaristic or imperialistic vibe - although there was 'British bulldog' to be played in an old church hall. There was a uniform, but there was at school too, an established hierarchy, ditto. We pledged allegiance to God and the Queen, but that was also a societal norm. Despite the Sex Pistols' primal tirade against the 'fascist regime' in 1977, in May 1981 - when the monarch and consort visited my town, and as a 'seconder' in the Cubs I stood beside the flag bearer in the welcoming party - I was part of a general spirit of goodwill towards the crown cemented two months later by the marriage of Charles and Diana.

That's me on the right, shortly before meeting the Q & the DoE in Essex
 So, while right-on lefties might have sent their children into the pagan arms of the Woodcraft Folk, where I lived it was the scouts and looking back now I see that scouting was the only celebration of the natural world legitimized in my early education. I don't remember which badges I got now; in my parents' loft I think there might still be a tiny green jumper with various embroidered marks of activity sewn on my by mum - but it could be my brother's. I do remember camping in the woods, netting newts and frogspawn, carrying a knife - all while my home town tripled in size, trees were felled, fields concreted over and secret dens were lost forever. 



I perused a copy of Baden-Powell's Scouting for Boys recently and if you want to find stuff to criticize it's easy enough, but there's also much to celebrate too. I don't know a lot about scouting today but I know the movement has changed, it's for both girls and boys together now for a start and from the beginning of 2014, UK Scouts are no longer required to pledge loyalty to God (the Queen's still there mind). A look at the Activity Badges is certainly more inspiring than the average school curriculum. Many permaculturalists have become interested in 'nature education' recently and the whole tracking school tradition through Jon Young, Tom Brown and mysterious 'Native American' guides - but a lot of what you find there you'll find in Baden-Powell's work too.

Scout accommodation in Jordan, oddly un-tented in a Bedouin country.
In 2010 I attended my second PDC (Permaculture Design Course), this one in Jordan in the middle east. The venue was a facility for Jordanian scouts: the Al-Karamah Scout Camp. We didn't share the space with any scouts while we were there, but they were in our mind as we made designs for the camp. They were missing clients, resources and the potential implementers of what we proposed.

The relationship between permaculture and scouting is undeveloped, but it exists. The New York Times has noted that 'permaculture contains enough badges of eco-merit to fill a Girl Scout sash'. Indeed one permaculturalist and former scout has written about creating a permaculture merit badge for scouts. A far from exhaustive trawl of what's made it on to the internet reveals some more of the connections. Permaculture teacher Ludwig Appletans is a former Scout Master. Scouts have helped implement permaculture in places like St. Saviours Edible Garden in Brockley Rise, London; Anglesey, Wales; Paolo Alto, California; and East Timor (also see here).

Recently some American permaculturalists took the Mollison quote used at the start of this article and made a video on the 'Time Scouts' theme/meme:



Back in April this year I joined a Permaculture Association recce to Gilwell Park, scouting it out, looking over the spaces, the buildings, the accommodation. It's a great venue - both for this year's national convergence and next year's international one. One space stood out for me in particular: the 'Swan Centre' which has a relief sign depicting a black swan. Since Nassim Nicholas Taleb's 2007 book The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable, the image of the black swan has held a totemic power to evoke 'the extreme impact of certain kinds of rare and unpredictable events (outliers) and humans' tendency to find simplistic explanations for these events retrospectively' (thanks wikipedia). So I see that black swan at Gilwell Park as both a further admonition to 'be prepared' and as a warning against trying to find simplistic ways of understanding the complex situation we find ourselves in. At the convergence I expect the conversations to go deeper, around the fire they generally do.

Firepit at Gilwell Park
 
You are invited to the 2014 UK national permaculture convergence, I'd like to see you there.

Be prepared:

  • Buy your convergence tickets now!
  • train tickets for the convergence dates are already on sale - also buy now before the price goes up
  • If you are camping then it will be very sunny the whole weekend - but show your friends how resilient you are by being prepared for rain anyway!
  • the most interesting things are often at the edges

UK Permaculture Convergence 2014 

The UK Permaculture Convergence 2014 will beheld at Gilwell Park from the 12th to 14th September. Details and booking information can be found here. The convergence is open to non-members of the Permaculture Association for the first time this year, but the cost for non members is more than the cost of a year’s membership and the price for association members. So it makes sense to join.


International Permaculture Convergence UK 2015

The UK is hosting the International Permaculture Convergence in 2015, and we will be hosting hundreds of permaculturalists from around the world. The UK Permaculture Conference 2014 is being held at Gilwell Park, which is the same venue as has been chosen for IPC UK 2015. Not only does this give the IPC planners a chance to test out the venue, but it also gives us a chance to get a feel for what it will be like next year. 
 Funds raised from the 2014 Convergence will help pay for the IPC in 2015, so the more people who attend, the easier it will be to fund the IPC, and the more cash will be left over to help fund IPC 2017, which will be in India.



Wednesday, 9 July 2014

This is Generation Ecocide


I normally don't like to get publicly ranty about flying. I made a personal decision to stop flying (i.e. using aircraft) eight years ago, it seemed a no-brainer if I wanted to reduce my environmental impact which I did, and do.

Most of friends still fly, my family flys, [nearly] everybody I work with flys - I'm not surprised, I love visiting far-off locations and I love flying. I love the view out the window looking down on land and ocean from above, I love the kiss of strange warm air as you step out of the aeroplane, I love being able to travel across the globe in a few hours - transported as if by magic. When the daily grind wears a little more coarsely, the thought of a quick jet to exotic climes has a lot of appeal. But I don't fly because I made an ethical decision not to. (I've written about this before).

Choosing not to Fly



I decided early on though that I wasn't going to evangelise about the issues, people generally know the facts already - or at least enough of them to make their own ethical decision. If someone asks, I'll tell them the reasons for my choice, but their choice is, well, their choice. Even amongst permaculture friends and colleagues, who I might expect to feel more similarly to myself, I hold my tongue generally.

But in the last few weeks or months it seems that I've been offered, or have just seen, a few opportunities that have interested or excited me, but which I have forgone because to have pursued them would have meant flying and contravening my ethical decision. I've also seen others pursue these same opportunities and I guess that it's pissed me off a bit, which admittedly is my own business to deal with, we choose how we respond. But the further provocation of adverts for Easyjet everywhere I go has pushed me into being more vocal. The relentless promotion of short city breaks, the essential appeal to the 'ease' of 'jet' travel, and the new slogan 'This is Generation Easyjet' which makes these cheap flights, signifiers for a lifestyle group to which we are encouraged to identify - these have all also pissed me off. Everytime I see 'This is Generation Easyjet' I think 'This is Generation Ecocide' - so I detourned one of their ads to make the above image (from a French ad which relates (celebrates?) holidays in the sun to being addicted to natural antidepressants) and shared it on Facebook.



One response in the comments to my Facebook post was 'Generation Ecocide? For going on holiday? Really?' and that provoked me into longer comment on the issue of flying, so the below is my attempt to answer the commenters question.




Choosing not to fly, if you currently do, can produce a significant reduction in your personal carbon footprint (minimum effort for maximum effect).

(It doesn’t matter if this flying is for holidays, work, exciting teaching opportunities etc.)

• What is ecocide?

‘Ecocide is the extensive damage to, destruction of or loss of ecosystem(s) of a given territory, whether by human agency or by other causes, to such an extent that peaceful enjoyment by the inhabitants of that territory has been or will be severely diminished.’
(proposed amendment to the Rome Statute, by Polly Higgins of Eradicating Ecocide, April 2010)

• Does climate change cause ‘extensive damage to, destruction of or loss of ecosystem(s) of a given territory’?

‘In recent decades, changes in climate have caused impacts on natural and human systems  on all continents and across the oceans’
(IPCC, ‘Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability’)

• Do greenhouse gas emissions contribute to climate change?

‘Continued emissions of greenhouse gases will cause further warming and changes in all components of the climate system. Limiting climate change will require substantial and sustained reductions of greenhouse gas emissions.’
(IPCC, ‘Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis’)

• Is flying a significant generator of greenhouse gas emissions?

‘Aircraft emit gases and particles directly into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere where they have an impact on atmospheric composition. These gases and particles alter the concentration of atmospheric greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide CO2), ozone (O3), and methane (CH4); trigger formation of condensation trails (contrails); and may increase cirrus cloudiness-all of which contribute to climate change’
(IPCC, ‘Aviation and the Global Atmosphere: A Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’ (1999))

• Is flying to go on holiday a significant generator of greenhouse gas emissions?

Average greenhouse gas emissions per air passenger:

- Domestic Flights (166.9 gCO2e/pkm)
- Short-haul Flights (95.2 gCO2e/pkm)
- Long-haul flights (109.0 gCO2e/pkm)

(DEFRA, 2012 Guidelines to Defra / DECC’s GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting: Methodology Paper for Emission Factors)

Therefore a return flight London to Naples (1617km x2 = 3234km) produces per passenger: 539,754.6 gCO2e (0.539755 metric tons of CO2 equivalent)

A return flight London to New York (5,572km x2 = 11,144km) produces per passenger:  1214,696 gCO2e (1.2147 metric tons of CO2 equivalent)

• What’s a ‘safe’, equitable, annual carbon emission total for an individual?

‘to achieve a 450ppmv concentration target, average carbon emissions per capita globally need to drop from about 1 tonne today to about 0.3 tons in 2100.’

(IPCC, IPCC Third Assessment Report: Climate Change 2001: Working Group III: Mitigation)

So: if you’re still flying, that alone constitutes an un-sustainable lifestyle, using more than your fair share of the atmospheric commons and contributing to ecosystem degradation and the death of living systems, ecocide.

TL:DR  If you're not 1 planet living, you're contributing to our one planet dying.

Saturday, 5 July 2014

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